Main Article Content
This research paper basically discussed about the empirical gaps when identifying the relationship between student engagement and their academic achievement, which would be useful for the future researches on the topic. Secondary data collection was used. A critical Literature Review was conducted using a sample size of 22 articles. The first gap is about the sample size, where the sample is being limited to just one university/school/institute. The second gap is about the way the researchers have measured the academic achievement, where most have done using a single subject result, which would be impractical. Thirdly, lack of qualitative approaches to measure the relationship between student engagement and academic achievement is identifies as a gap. As the fourth gap, students from all the years and variety of faculties should be taken, as student engagement might vary with them. As the fifth gap, many researchers have identified that most researches have been carried out targeting one country, which might be failed to give an overall result on the relationship. The sixth gap identified was that many of the researchers have paid to the respondents in filling the survey and therefore the researchers have faced restrictions due to unavailability of sufficient financial resources. The last gap which was identified throughout the literature was that information technology nowadays has an influence on student engagement and the fact was not taken into account by most of the researches. At the latter part of the research, the recommendations to the future researchers were given.
Audas R, Willms JD. Engagement and dropping out of school: A life-course perspective, Applied Research Branch, Human Resources Development Canada Hull, QC; 2001.
Voelkl K. Measuring students' identification with school. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 1996;56(5): 760-770.
Connell JP, Wellborn JG. Competence, autonomy and relatedness: A motivational analysis of self-system processes; 1991.
Finn JD. School Engagement & Students at Risk; 1993.
Finn J, Rock D. Academic success among students at risk for school failure. Journal of Applied Psychology. 1997;82(2):221-234.
Skinner E, Belmont M. Motivation in the classroom: Reciprocal effects of teacher behavior and student engagement across the school year. Journal of Educational Psychology. 1993;85(4): 571-581.
Goodenow C. School motivation, engagement and sense of belonging among urban adolescent students; 1992.
Gunuc S. The relationships between student engagement and their academic achievement. International Journal on New Trends in Education and Their Implications. 2015;5(4):216-231.
Pascarella E, Terenzini P. Predicting Freshman Persistence and Voluntary Dropout Decisions from a Theoretical Model. The Journal of Higher Education. 1980;51(1):60.
DeFour D, Hirsch B. The adaptation of black graduate students: A social network approach. American Journal of Community Psychology. 1990;18(3):487-503.
Park S. Student engagement and classroom variables in improving mathematics achievement. Asia Pacific Education Review. 2005;6(1):87-97.
Sheard J, Carbone A, Hurst A. Student engagement in first year of an ICT degree: Staff and student perceptions. Computer Science Education. 2010;20(1):1-16.
Choi N. Self‐efficacy and self‐concept as predictors of college students' academic performance. Psychology in the Schools. 2005;42(2):197-205.
Li Y, Lerner J, Lerner R. Personal and Ecological Assets and Academic Competence in Early Adolescence: The Mediating Role of School Engagement. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2010;39(7):801-815.
Greene T, Marti C, McClenney K. The effort — outcome gap: Differences for African American and Hispanic Community College Students in Student Engagement and Academic Achievement. The Journal of Higher Education. 2008;79(5): 513-539.
Nauffal D. Assessment of student engagement: An analysis of trends. Tertiary Education and Management. 2012;18(2):171-191.
Wara E, Aloka P, Odongo B. Relationship between cognitive engagement and academic achievement among Kenyan Secondary School Students. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 2018;9(2):61-72.
Appleton J, Christenson S, Kim D, Reschly A. Measuring cognitive and psychological engagement: Validation of the student engagement instrument. Journal of School Psychology. 2006;44(5): 427-445.
Fredricks J, Blumenfeld P, Paris A. School engagement: Potential of the concept, State of the Evidence. Review of Educational Research. 2004;74(1): 59-109.
Krause K, Coates H. Students’ engagement in first‐year university. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education. 2008;33(5):493-505.
Goodenow C. Classroom belonging among early adolescent students. The Journal of Early Adolescence. 1993;13(1): 21-43.
Hausmann L, Schofield J, Woods R. Sense of belonging as a predictor of intentions to persist among African American and white first-year college students. Research in Higher Education. 2007;48(7):803-839.
Matthews K, Andrews V, Adams P. Social learning spaces and student engagement. Higher Education Research & Development. 2011;30(2):105-120.